PERUVIAN PISCO - IS A GRAPE BRANDY FIRST DESTILLED IN PERU
, the name of Pisco is reserved for the alcoholic drink belonging to a variety of liquor of grapes. It is produced in Peru
from ends of the 16th century. It is the typical distilled drink of Peru, elaborated from the grape, which value has penetrated the borders of the country, since it is testified by the records of embarkations realized across the port of Pisco towards Europe and other zones of America from the 17th century, such as Chile, England, Spain, Portugal, Guatemala, Panama, and to The United States of America, from middle of the 19th century.
It is one of the Peruvian flag products and only is produced in the departments of Lima
, Moquegua and in the valleys of Locumba, Sama and Caplina of Tacna's department.
ETYMOLOGY OF THE PERUVIAN PISCO
In southern Quechua (spoken in a big part of Peru at the arrival of the Spanish), the word Pisqu (pronounce [pis.qu], also found in the chronicles as Pisku, Phishgo, Pichiu) designates to the small birds.
In the valley of Pisco inhabited a human group more than two thousand years ago, emphasized by their ceramics and that, in the epoch of the Empire Inca, was characterized by their notable potters, and named Piskos.
Chuquimanco, cacique of these lands was meditating at dusk when saw a flocks of birds that were furrowing the marine horizon, in search of islands for the rest. They were thousands of birds that Chuquimanco knew in his language as Pishqus. They inspired to his village of potters and gave it their name.
From this epoch, one of these products of pottery was the containers or amphorae, which were serving to store drinks of any nature, including alcoholic drinks. To these containers they called the Piskos.
So, the first liquor of grape that was produced in Peru
was stored in Piskos and with to pass from the time, this alcoholic liquid acquired the name of its bottling.
HISTORY OF THE PERUVIAN PISCO
With the foundation of Lima in the year 1535 as city of the Kings, the first stone were placed for the building of the church and with it was born the need to spurt of wine the mass for the celebration of the liturgical acts. In order to achieve this aim, the first plantations of grapevine began in the most fertile lands.
The first grapevine comes to Peru at the end of the first half of the 16th century from the Canary Isles, brought by the Marques Francisco de Caravantes. Chroniclers of the epoch indicate that was in the estate Marcahuasi, in the Cuzco, where the first vinification took place in South America. Likewise, they tell that Mateo Atiquipa was the first American enologist. Nevertheless, it was in Ica's valleys that these crops expanded widely due to the propitious climatic local conditions reason which is in this zone where the industry of wines developed with great force.
It was possibly between 1530 and 1550; the years in which vineyards of grape type “Common Black", they were planted taking advantage of the waters of the Achirana, a channel of detour of the waters of the Rio Ica, which was ordered to construct for the Inca Pachacutec in epochs Incaicas. The Spanish found that the system of irrigation of that zone, conducive the conditions to the grapevines that they were bringing, could bloom better. In addition, the combination of a land of the coast rich in very special chemical nutrients, the moderate climate and the care that they put in their crops, gave place that in Ica's valleys, the crops were expanding, especially in Pisco.
With the experience of these crops, the Europeans sitting in the country, created the grape type "Quebranta", that comes to be a genetic mutation of the black grape; elaborating this way, the special and unique must, of which was created finally the Pisco as it is known up today.
During the XVI and XVII century the Viceroyalty of Peru turned into the principal wine producer into South America, being its epicenter Ica's valley, where Valverde's city was founded, and in 1572 the city of Santa Maria is founded in the valley of Pisco.
In 1574, the Spanish began to use the name Pisco to designate the name of a river, a settlement and a port, the same one that was one of the principal routes that were serving to the regional trade while it was a point of embarkation of guano and of the sending of silver towards Spain.
Nevertheless, chroniclers of the epoch inform that in a beginning, the production of grape was destined only to the elaboration of wine, but little by little open a market for the liquor. According to the historian Lorenzo Huertas, the production of the liquor of grape would have begun at the end of the 16th century; in turn, studies of Brown Kendall and Jakob Schlüpman indicate that “the expansion of the market of the wine and the liquor of grape took place in the last third of the 16th century".
The Peruvian researcher Emilio Romero makes clear that, in 1580, Francis Drake penetrated into the port of Pisco and asked a rescue for the prisoners that he took; the villagers to complete the rescue paid him with 300 earthenware jar of liquor of the zone.
In spite of the prohibitions that the Spanish wreath wanted to impose on the production and the trade of wines in Peru, an intense wine activity was developed, principally in Ica's valley, which generated a important maritime movement on the coast of the Pacific Ocean throughout this epoch. Sample of it, are the orders of the king Philip III and Philip IV, expressed on May 18, 1615 and June 19, 1626, respectively, and withdrawals in the law 18, of the Title the XVIII, of the Book the IV of the Summary of the Laws of The Indies, by virtue of which there was prohibited the sale of the Peruvian wine in Guatemala ("That in the Province of Guatemala neither should be transported, do not even contract wine of Peru"). This one indicates that the city of Santiago of Guatemala represented " that some persons lead to Acaxultla's Port of that Province many wines of Peru, that for being strong, new and for cooking, they cause to the Indians generally very big hurt", for what it would refer to the Peruvian liquor of grape, which is of major alcoholic degree that the wine and needs distillation ("new, strong and for cooking"). Also the exportation was prohibited to Panama, for a order of December 17,1614, which was indicating "That no person could lead to the city of Panama wine came from Peru of any kind" and from September 16, 1586 it orders "That in the city of Panama any bartender could sell not even sell publicly or secrete any cooked wine. Everything what will sell in the taverns and groceries of these kingdoms without mixture of stew”.
In 1613 there registers a testament that leaves documentary witness of the elaboration of this product. The above mentioned testament belongs to a resident of Ica, so called Pedro Manuel "the Greek", native is from Corfu, dated this year, and that is guarded in the General File of the Nation, in Lima, inside Ica's notaries protocols, in the protocol N º 99 of the notary Francisco Nieto, of date April 30, 1613. In this document, the above mentioned resident, indicates to possess "thirty vats fill with liquor, more a barrel full of liquor than short list thirty earthenware jars of the mentioned liquor", more technological implements to produce this distilled drink, "a big boiler of copper of extract liquor, with its lid of cannon. Two pultayas one where pass the tube and other one that is smaller than the first one."Anyhow, it would be possible to conclude the production of liquor a time behind; in the matter, Lorenzo Huertas indicates that must be born in mind “that, though in 1613 the testament was signed, these instruments of production existed very much before".
From 1617 there would be increased the production of liquor of grape on a large scale sold by the Jesuits in Lima, Arequipa, Cuzco, Ayacucho and Potosi in High Peru. The increase of the production of this drink and of wine allowed its exportation to diverse places of the Spanish control, which was carried out principally by the port of Pisco.
The first identification of the liquor with the place would have been realized in 1630 by the peninsular Spanish Francisco Lopez de Caravantes, who exposed in his work General News of Peru that “the valley of Pisco, continues being the most abundant of excellent wines of the whole Peru. From there so called “liquor of grape of Pisco, for be extracting from the small grape, it is one of the most exquisite liquors that is drunk in the world".
In 1640 is founded the "Villa of Pisco", in the surrounding areas of the emplacement indigenous to the same name.
The trade of the Pisco grows to half of the 17th century. The embarkations were going with destiny to the ports of the Pacific. From 1670 Ica's valleys and Pisco was exporting principally liquor of grape in “Earthenware jars of Piscos".
In 1687 an earthquake destroyed it partially, and the tidal wave that took place later increased the damages.
From the beginning of the 18th century such exportation was major that that of the own wine. About 1767 the production of liquor, which was coming mostly from the region of Pisco, was representing 90% of the wine total production.
In 1832 the villa of Pisco was renamed "Villa of the Independence", in honor to the Independence of Peru; on having been declared city in 1898, it recovered its former name of Quechua origin.
In 1990, the term "Pisco" was declared as denomination of Peruvian origin, by means of the Resolution Directorial N° 072087-DIPI, of the Direction of Industrial Property of the ITINTEC. On the following year, with the Supreme Decree N° 001-91-ICTI/IND of January 16, 1991, is fixed officially the territory of production of the Pisco of Peru, in the coastal zone of the departments of Lima, Ica, Arequipa, Moquegua and the valleys of Locumba, Sama and Caplina in Tacna's department.
The Peruvian liquor of grape, the Pisco, rapidly has been gaining prestige and its volumes of exportation have grown significantly.
ELABORATION OF THE PISCO IN PERU
The production of the Pisco is a sector dominated by the medium industry, often handcrafted. This one takes care of the former processes of elaboration and the quality, and often it does not answer to strictly commercial purposes but to a kind of generational pride. It is a product flag of Peru.
Its quality, product of the fermentation of special grapes treated in stills of copper, managed to have a great embossment and prestige in the course of the XVII, XVIII and XIX century, not only in the territory of Peru, but also out of it, coming to Europa's countries and to The United States of America (California).
The elaboration of the Pisco begins in March of every year, with the collection of carefully selected grapes, proceeding from the vineyards of the coast of Peru, in trucks replete with baskets of this fruit. Previous weight, the grapes are unloaded in a press, rectangular pool of masonry, located necessarily in the highest place of the wine cellar, since from there the juices and musts they will flow for gravity, first to the vats of fermentation and then up to the same still. Seven kilos of grape produce a liter of Pisco.
The “tread of the grape" it begins normally to the late afternoon, avoiding the exhausting heat of the day, and extends until the dawn. A squad of six "pisadores (who tread the grapes)” or threshers spread uniformly the grape in the press. In this process of treading and re-treading, the grapes break and there separate the husks to which are name "residues", extracting the juice or "Must", which for fermentation, loses its sugar, transforming in alcohol after approximately four weeks. Among singings and jokes, the threshers do their work claiming the "chinguerito", who will accompany them during the whole night. The chinguerito is a punch elaborated with the same fresh juice of grape that is obtained to that is added a good dose of grappa, lemon, and cinnamon.
Finished the sixth threshing, the hatch of the press is opened and the fresh juice of grape falls to the puntaya (a pool to which comes only liquid without solid residues, because it filters placing a double basket in the exit of the channel). There it is keep for 24 hours. Then the juice is bringing up to the vats of fermentation by an ingenious system of gutters. Nowadays, the wine cellars use stick, and pneumatic presses turning the process of treads handcrafted in a system mechanized of high efficiency.
In the vats it gives a biochemical process of alcoholic fermentation where the glucose from the natural sugar of the grape, is transformed into piruvic acid forming an ester. The last molecule loses carbon dioxide to expel for a biological mechanism, own of the yeasts, the functional group carbon of the piruvic acid. The formed ethanol, later accepts two protons from the NADH and the liberated in the initial stage of the glucose, transforming itself, in ethanol or alcohol of human consumption.
To manage it, small natural yeasts contained in the rind of the fruit digest a gram of sugar and turn it into half a gram of alcohol and a half gram of carbon dioxide. The process delays seven days. The producer controls that the fermentation does not go out and that the temperatures of the must do not rise excessively because the fruit would lose its natural aroma, which is the one that gives the final character of the pisco. Finished the fermentation it is removes again for the gutters up to the still to initiate the distillation.
The technical and art of the distillation consists in regulate the external contribution of energy (heat), to obtain a slow and constant pace, which allows the appearance of the aromatic components at the right time. The process develops in two phases: the vaporization of the volatile elements of the musts, and the condensation of the produced steams.
TYPES OF STILLS
The charentais, Used in the zone of Cognac, France known in Peruvian territory like “simple still". It has four parts: the large frying pan where there is placed the must, the capital or throat in the shape of onion, the neck of swan where the alcoholic steams flow, and the coil where the alcoholic steam becomes condensed turning into Pisco.
The second machine of distillation is similar to the previous one but has connected one warms wines, a kind of cylinder crossed in its interior for the neck of swan.
The third type is the handcrafted washboard constructed of brick and mud with the walls lined with concrete with lime. Instead of neck of swan the steams go towards the coil across a conical pipe of copper called cannon, which goes out of a side of the vault.
There is a serious debate among the Pisqueros around the kindness of one and other one, but it is considered that a handcrafted Pisco, elaborated in washboard, is a product of very high quality and is very valued.
The Peruvian Pisco is elaborated from the pure juice of grape and is totally different from the liquors of grape done in other places of the world. Johnny Schuler, in History of the Pisco says that: “Peru
is the only producer that uses the juice and must, since all the rest use to produce their wines, returning to hydrate, to ferment and distill the residual matter (husk, residue). The Italian grappa, the Spanish residue or the Greek tzipouro, they are made with husk. Here takes root in the character of the Pisco of Peru
. Its aromatic structure and its complexity in the mouth. Characteristics that separate it from other liquors of grape of the world ".
VARIETIES OF THE PISCO OF PERU
Depending on the grapes used in its elaboration and to the process of distillation, recognized by the Technical Peruvian Norm, exist four varieties of Pisco of Peru
It is special for its thin distillation and of an alone variety of grape. It is obtained only of grapes of the not aromatic variety as they are: quebranta, molar and common black. The Pisco pure in degustation is a Pisco of few aromatic structure in the nose, or, in the smell. This allows that the drinker should not be saturated or gets tired in his gustatory sensations. It possesses a complexity of flavors in the mouth. It is the favorite of the Iqueños and the Pisco used for the elaboration) of the Pisco Sour. In a recent study it has informed that between the Peruvian consumer the pure Pisco of major consumption is the elaborated with grape quebranta, that is preferred by 40%.
It is from the distillation of fresh incompletely fermented grape juice. It is elaborated with grape juice that has not finished its process of fermentation. In other words, the grape juice is revealed before the whole sugar has transformed in alcohol. It is because of it that needs of a major quantity of grape what puts up the price lightly of the product. The green grape juice is a subtle, fine, elegant Pisco and with very much body. It possesses a varied structure of aroma and flavors, and in addition a tactile sensation in the mouth. The fact of distil the grape juice with residual sugar does not imply that the Pisco is sweet. The glucose is not eliminated by the still because this one only evaporates alcohols. Nevertheless, this scanty quantity of sweet in the grape juice transmits a very particular characteristic contributing "body" to its structure and a "velvet" sensation in the mouth.
It has major force and alcoholic degree. From fresh fermented grape juice and the mixture of different varieties of grape. It is elaborated with an assembly of several vine-stocks. The definition of "acholado" approaches the "blended" (mixes), since there is blended the Scotch whiskey, the brandy or the sherry. For better understanding it is possible to establish that the pure Pisco and the aromatic ones are "varieties" or “single malt " and the acholados, "blended". The Acholados combine the structure of smell of the aromatic ones with the flavors of the pures. Each producer hoards secretly the proportions that they use in their acholados, creating this way a world of varieties and flavors. The pisco acholado as raw material of the Pisco sour develops in specially estimated according to the understood ones.
It is elaborated of brandy grapes aromatic. It is elaborated with vine-stocks of aromatic varieties: Italia, Muscat, Torontel, Albilla. In tasting the aromatic Piscos contribute to the nose a range of aromas to flowers and fruits, confirmed in mouth with an aromatic complex and interesting structure, which offers in addition a long sensation retro nasal. They are ideal Piscos, in cocktail bar, to prepare chilcano of Pisco, which base must be an aromatic pisco. The aromatic Pisco Italy (elaborated with grapes of the same name) would have 20% of the Peruvian market and would have major preference in the female segment according to a recent study.
Finally, there exist two types of Pisco that still are not contemplated in the technical procedure:
Elaborated in a traditional way but that are aromatized, that is to say, they are joined by aroma of other fruits, in the moment of the distillation. For this, the producer places a small basket inside the large frying pan with the select fruit. The small basket hangs of the base of the capital. They are the wine steams those that passing for the small basket extract the aromas of the fruit. On the market they are of lemon, cherry, mandarin and other flavors.
They are prepared with Pisco as element for the maceration and the fruit as macerated element. Of very easy preparation, these macerations use to be done in house being the digestive very valued. For its preparation you just have to take a "demijohn" of broad mouth, to place the fruit that is preferred, to add pure Pisco and left to macerate for a few weeks. The people in Peru use their imagination for this type of prepared, adding rind of orange, a bit of honey, cinnamon, some raisins and what the imagination suggests.
VARIETIES OF GRAPES TO THE PISCO
Non Aromatic: Quebranta, Common Black, Mollar, Uvina.
Aromatic: Italia, Muscat, Albilla, Torontel.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PISCO OF PERU
According to the Peruvian Technical Norm applied by the Department of the Production, the production of Pisco must have five characteristics, invariably rigid:
One of the principal differences in the types of Pisco, lie in the reinvestment that are in use for its elaboration, for handcrafted or industrial. Not only are used varieties of aromatic grape type Muscat and the grape quebranta (mutation of Peru), but also not aromatic varieties as the current common black and the mollar, but in minor percentage.
Not steam rectification:
The process of distillation, it is carried out in still or reaping-hooks of discontinuous or not continue functioning. This way is avoided the elimination of the constitutive elements of the real Pisco, being rectified the steams produced to the moment of its distillation.
Time of fermentation of the grape juice and the process of distillation:
The Pisco comes from the distillation of "fresh" grape juice or broths, recently fermented. This rapid procedure prevents that the broth or grape juice of grape fermented, has a lot of time before being distilled.
, the companies that elaborate Pisco must be adapted to the requirements established for the use of stills; for the Commission of Supervision of Technical Procedure, Metrology, Quality control and Restrictions for tariffs of the National Institute of Defense of the Competition and of the Protection of the Intellectual Property (INDECOPI).
It does not have attachés:
The process of distillation of the Peruvian Pisco, it is not paralyzed up to the moment in which an alcoholic average level of 42º or 43º degrees Gay-Lussac has been obtained Lussac (approximately, in physical units of concentration, a 42 – 43%v/v). Neither is use distilled or treated water, which would make it lose body, color and all other characteristics that distinguish it.
Obtaining of the alcoholic content:
To the beginning of the process of distillation of the fresh grape juice, its alcoholic richness comes approximately even the 75 º degrees Gay-Lussac. As the process extends, the alcoholic degree diminishes, which allows, the integration of other elements typical of the Pisco.
The above mentioned process, it will continue until the alcoholic level should have gone down even 42º or 43º in average according to the criterion of the Pisco; being able even, come even the 38º degrees Gay-Lussac.
QUALITY OF THE PISCO: CORD AND ROSE
The quality test that distinguishes to the Peruvian Pisco is known as “cord and rose". It consists of beating the bottle without opening and then appreciates a light viscosity that seems as oil turning in the central part of the bottle, as if it was a whirlwind, call "rose". To its extremes, appears a tail of bubbles called "cord".
ZONES OF PRODUCTION
In the Peruvian territory are recognize as unique producing zones of this liquor, the coast of the regions of Lima
that belong to the Valle of Pisco, Arequipa
, Moquegua, as well as Caplina's valleys, Locumba and Sama of the region Tacna.
On the coast of Peru
are located a valley, a river, a port and a city called ancestrally Pisco. These localities were appearing already in the first maps that on Peru
Diego Méndez realized in 1574.
SOWED AREA AND DECISIONS FOR ITS INCREASE
In the middle of the 19th century in Peru
had sowed around 150 thousand hectares of grapevine destined to the production of Pisco. This level of production was diminishing gradually up to coming to 11.500 hectares cultivated in the year 2002, for lack of incentives and substitution of crops for others more profitable a short-term.
There having been stated the decadence of this crop practically ancient, which has four and a half centuries of practice, and wanting to recover gradually the previous levels of production, at the beginning of 2003, the Peruvian Government decided to promote the increase of the areas of crop and its exportation, dictating special measures to fulfill this aim.
Parallel, there were expressed legal specific and strict devices so that the producers reach a high level of quality, discrediting those that do not assemble the indispensable requirements needed to obtain a liquor of the first category, preventing them even its exportation labeled as pisco.
The sowed hectares produce 800.000 liters of Pisco to the year. The verified result till now is that the level of area of crop has increased substantially and probably this way it will continue being in the future, which would facilitate the promotion of the Pisco Sour.
In 2007 the principal destinations of exportation of the Pisco of Peru
are: Chile (31%), The United States (30%) France, Spain, Germany, Canada, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina, Australia, Czech Republic.
In the year 2008 Peru
is consolidated as the first exporter of Pisco.
PERUVIAN LEGISLATION OF THE PISCO
The elaboration of the pisco is governed by the Technical Norm of the Pisco NTP211.001:2002, which in its definitions specifies the following thing: "Pisco is the product obtained of the distillation of the resultant broths of the exclusive fermentation of the ripe grape following the traditional practices established in the producing zones before recognized and classified like such for the official corresponding organization ".
Likewise, the Supreme Decree N° 001-91-ICTI/IND of January, 1991, recognizes officially the Pisco as denomination of Peruvian origin, for the products obtained by the distillation of wines derived from the fermentation of fresh grapes, on the coast of the departments of Lima, Ica, Arequipa, Moquegua and the valleys of Locumba, Sama and Caplina in Tacna's department. This wants to say that any liquor of grape prepared out of the established boundaries will be only it, a liquor of grape but not Pisco of Peru.
This denomination of origin granted by INDECOPI
needs that the producers present samples to laboratories of certification, to submit them to an analysis physicist – chemist that will determine if they are adapted to the requirements established in the Technical Norm. Important requirement, since the denomination of origin guarantees to the consumer that the pisco that they are acquiring has a quality certified.
In agreement to the specified by the Technical Peruvian Norm of November 6, 2002 (NTP211.001:2002) the Pisco is defined as the “Liquor obtained exclusively by distillation of fermented "Pisco Grapes", (Quebranta, Common Black, Mollar, Italia, Muscat, Albilla, Torontel and Uvina) recently fermented, using methods which maintain the traditional principle of quality established in the recognized areas of production". The above mentioned norm establishes equally that the alcoholic volumetric degree of the Pisco can change between 38 and 48 degrees.
PROMOTION OF THE PISCO AND THE PISCO SOUR OF PERU
The National Institute of Culture of Peru
, for leadership Resolution N º 179 of April 7, 1988, declares the term "Pisco" as cultural patrimony of the nation.
Day of the Pisco and of the Pisco Sour
On The fourth Sunday of July, it was instituted as the Day of the Pisco in Peru
, for Ministerial Resolution N º 055-99-ITINCI/DM of May 6, 1999.
Also it has become institutionalized the Day of the Pisco Sour
that is celebrated on the first Saturday of February, according to dictates the Ministerial Resolution Nº 161-2004-PRODUCE of April 22, 2004.
ROUTE OF THE PISCO IN PERU
In all wine cellars of Peru
, has joined the tourism to its elaboration and is an obliged step, to visit a wine cellar in the tourist programmed tours, where beside tasting a good glass of Pisco it is possible to share knowledge, experiences and anecdotes with nice and nice hosts in their own house. They show to the traveler their vineyards, their wine cellars, their stills and evidently their Piscos.
The following ones are some routes of the pisco of Peru
, instituted from the year 2004:
Lima, in view of the urban growth of Lima
, the wine cellars have in full urban center their shops. These are located in the districts of Pueblo Libre, Surco and Pachacámac
. More in the southern part and out of the metropolitan area, in Cañete's province, it is possible to find good pisco in the district of Santa Cruz de Flores.
In Socsi's annexe, before the bridge on the river Cañete is Lunahuana, it has piscos that have obtained golden medals in national events. Jita's annexe, is popular for its Pisco italia; in the high of the valley, in Catapalla, they produce a wide variety of macerates and good Piscos.
The whole valley of Chincha produces excellent wines and Piscos. A case that deserves to be outlined is the wine cellar "Tabernero", whose red wines are exported to The United States of America and whose wines and Piscos, have been rewarded by medals of gold and silver in the festivals of wines of Paris, France.
Ica a few kilometers before Ica's city one finds Guadalupe's district, with excellent piscos and wines. The Center of Technological Wine Innovation is the manager in Ica's department of contributing new technologies, so much in the management of vineyards, as in the elaboration of Piscos and wines. Ica is the most important producing valley and there are hundreds the wine cellars that can be visited. They all produce very good Piscos. In Subtanjalla's district, it is possible to taste a good pure Pisco and other aromatized with lemon. The most important wine cellars are "Tacama", “Vista Alegre" and "Wine cellar and vineyards The Caravedo" - the last one is one of the most former producers of pisco and one of the most former vineyards of South America, with 323 years of existence, among others. Too few kilometers of Ica, crossing the sandbank, there is located the wine cellar "Ocucaje"
Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna are the producers of this zone, thanks to the so special climatic conditions, produce excellent piscos italia and green must. One of the most famous wine cellars of Peru
is the modern wine cellar of "Omo" that produces the famous pisco "Biondi". In Moquegua, one finds one of the wine cellars that already are relics of the past come to the 21st century. In Ilo, also is produced excellent Pisco. In Vitor's valley, also there are excellent Piscos as in the valley of Majes were also has been installed a Center of Wine Investigation, which comes producing very good Piscos. Finally in Tacna, in Magollo and other places of the department, are produced Piscos of good quality.
BOTTLE AND GLASS OF THE PISCO OF PERU
The consumers of Pisco of Peru
, have constructed from centuries behind, a paraphernalia about its consumption, where more it is obvious is in the zones of the Pisco as Lima
, Moquegua and Tacna, having spread to the rest of the territory in the last years, and that consists of normalizing so much the bottle that contains it and the glass where it must be drink. In the producing zones, the custom dictates that the Pisco "must be drink pure", accompanied probably of a Ceviche or of pork scratching (as it is a custom in Ica) and this way it is done to be considered to be a “good Pisquero".
The Pisqueros of these zones have thought about everything, to recreate not only felt as the smell and the taste, but in the last years the Pisco has a new normalized bottle, to recreate the sight. The producers of Pisco have put in agreement across the National Society of Industries to bottle the Pisco in a type of bottle, very thin and high of 750 ml, very slender and high that has recorded in bas-relief, the characteristics of the good Pisco of Peru
. Only differentiates the different types of Pisco, the etiquette that shows the type, brand, place of origin and the gained prizes.
In 2006, the Austrian house Riedel, which comes working the crystal for 250 years (founded in 1756), has designed the glass Riedel, for the Pisco of Peru
. The presentation of the glass was realized on May 11 in the city of Vienna, in the frame of the Summit of the European Union and Latin America, initially 40.000 units having been made for its import to Peru
. Its launch to the market was realized on June 24, 2006. On July 24, 2006 there was realized a ceremony of presentation of the glass of Pisco Riedel in the Palace of Government of Lima with the assistance of the president of the republic, Alejandro Toledo, and the president of Riedel, Georg Riedel.
The design took a year of work and 29 prototypes were tried; took part in these test Peruvian tasters who analyzed the prototypes from the point of view of the characteristics of the Pisco of Peru
. Padelis Paliouras, representative of the House Riedel for Latin America, and Johnny Schuler has said that “The design obeys not only the aesthetics, but principally to the physics. Its structure allows that the best of the pisco should go out to shine".
THE MOST WELL-KNOW COCKTAILS WITH PISCO
Punch of the Liberators
Is a tradition in the Congress of the Republic of Peru
, since 1821, to drink in the parliamentary enclosure after every transmission of the Supreme Control, July 28, day of the independence of Peru
, with the “Punch of the Liberators". This cocktail has its origin in the India. To Peru
it came, probably to beginnings of the 19th century and it was offered for the first time, already mixed with Pisco, after to swear the independence in the Council town of Lima
This traditional cocktail incorporates in its ingredients
1 ounce of Pisco, 1 ounce of white rum, 1 ounce of golden rum, 1/2 ounce of algarrobina (syrup made from the pods of the algarrobo tree, that grows all over the coast of Peru
), 1 1/2 ounce of black beer, 1 1/2 ounce of evaporated milk, 1 egg and 2 ounces of gomme syrup.
Its preparation consists of boiling all the ingredients except the egg, leave to cool and to liquefy the set with the egg. It is served in glasses hot drink, decorating with cinnamon.
, the Pisco Sour is considered to be the most traditional cocktail prepared on the basis of the Pisco, receiving the consideration of national Peruvian drink.
According to the classic recipe, the Pisco Sour in Peru
consists of 3 ounces Pisco, 1 ounce of juice of lemon, 1 ounce of gomme syrup, 1 egg white, 6 cubes of ice and 2 drops of amargo de angostura.
The preparation consists of beating in a shaker the ices with the Pisco, the lemon, the gomme syrup and the egg white until the blow of the ices is not listened. Using a blender it is beaten for a minute and at the end is added the egg white giving a blow to the blender of not more than 4 seconds.
To serve, it is recommend being careful to fill the glass up to the half, trying that does not pass great foam, being served with two droplets of amargo angostura.
Chilcano de Pisco
The Chilcano is a traditional Peruvian drink that is prepared on the basis of the Pisco, preferably with refreshments of soda, but also it is possible to do the mixture with refreshments of cola or with sodas of another flavor, as from 1935, the Peruvian Inca Kola.
Pisco punch (translated as “punch or slap of Pisco") is a cocktail created at the end of the 19th century in San Francisco, The United States of America, for Duncan Nicol. This drink was prepared with Peruvian Pisco, which was imported by North American merchants who were taking it to San Francisco from the ports of Peru. Its preparation consists of the mixture of Pisco, pineapple, lemon juice, sugar, gum Arabic and distilled water.
DICTIONARY OF THE PISCO
César Ángeles Caballero did a study among the consumers of Pisco in the zones producing of Peru
and came to the conclusion that in the slang of the Pisco of Peru
, there is an extensive vocabulary, very peculiarly and spread. Here are some expressions in the above mentioned popular slang:
habit of drinking Pisco or Cachina (It is prepared making ferment lightly the juice of the fresh grape. It comes to be the “young must" of the grape) during the pruning of the grape.
Pisco of low quality.
Bajamar (Low tide):
glass of Pisco that is drink after the food.
Pisco, syrup of Grenadian, cream of milk, cinnamon and cream of cocoa.
Pisco, port, yolk of egg, cream of cocoa, curacao, cinnamon and ice.
Tinaja (Earthenware jug):
legendary container of clay that is in use for preserving the Pisco.
To drink Pisco in the same bottle.
Pisco with lemon and warm tea.
Pisco with juice of orange.
aromatic pisco with vermouth.
To drink Pisco.
Aromatic Pisco with ginger ale drops of amargo angostura, lemon and ice.
Pisco of the worst quality.
Big containers to keep Pisco.
Empujar (To push):
To hurry a drink of Pisco.
Mixture of sweet wine with Pisco.
Small bottle of Pisco.
Place where the Pisco is elaborated. It is the synonymous of wine cellar.
Interest to the consumption of Pisco.
Customary drinker Pisco. Connoisseur of Piscos.
: Bottle of 750 ml fill of Pisco.
To drink a glass of pisco of an alone sip.
UNION OF THE PERUVIAN PISCO
The Pisco of Peru
, for its high alcoholic degree, cannot accompany foods as if it was a wine of 12-14 degrees. By it often it is preferred using it as appetizer or digestive, could be pure or in Pisco sour, before or after the food. Nevertheless the unions are possible and agreeable although the Pisco must be consumed moderately during the food.
It is though that the ideal union of the Pisco is the Ceviche, this due that the Peruvian Pisco possesses an alcoholic graduation of 43° minimum, needs from a "strong plate" like it is the Ceviche, which incorporates among its ingredients fish, onion, parsley, coriander, green lemon and chili, these last two very strong that are going to complement with the high alcoholic degree of the Pisco.
The Piscos of Peru
, a difference with the wines, in general stay well if they are combined with acid, strong and spicy flavors. Because of it the union for the Pisco includes from olives and toasted corn up to Ceviches, Ocopas and omelette of avocado. A product that also combines with the Pisco of Peru
is the chili. The plates done with fished and seafood of the Mar de Grau or with products of Peruvian Andes, as the potato and the corn fuse agreeably flavors, colors, smells and texture. All canapés that are in union with the Pisco, are a part of the gastronomy of Peru
It is used, to accompany the Pisco with the following canapés:
Wings of chicken with sauce of blue cheese.
Anticuchos of heart, lomo saltado, skewers of meat.
Cold cured Meat:
sausages with mustard, cured pork sausage to the gridiron, pudding, cabanosi and others.
Toasted maize, maize corn with cheese, parboiled stewed.
Tiradito, octopus to the olive, scratching fish, pejerrey coiled, choritos to the chalaca, lomo saltado of anchoveta, anchovies, among others fished.
Cookies of water or of soda with strong and spicy cheeses type blue cheese, cheese Tilsic of the valley of the Yura (Arequipa), buttery of Cajamarca or fresh cheeses of Arequipa or of the valley of the Mantaro (Junín), among others.
Yam to the oven, potato parboiled with chili.
Escribano Arequipeño, pichanga and pickled onions.
On May 29, 2007 was informed that, of a whole of 63 samples, of different varieties and brands of Peruvian Pisco they had obtained a whole of 16 medals in the World Contest of Brussels: a Great Medal of Gold, 8 golden medals and 7 of silver. In this contest of alcoholic drinks were present a whole of 5.733 samples, of which 273 were spirits, among them the pisco, being granted in whole 54 big medals of gold, 529 golden medals and 1057 of silver.
On June 18, 2007 three important brands of Pisco of Peru
were rewarded during the wine contest Les Citadelles du Vin in France, obtaining a trophy Citadelles (equivalent to a golden medal, having been granted 96), and two trophies Prestige (medals of bronze, of 191).
In the contest Vinalies Internationales, that organized the Enologists' Union of France, in Paris, from February 29 to March 4, 2008, the Piscos “Finca Redondo Acholado Puro" and "Finca Redondo Green Must Pure "produced by the wine cellars Viña Vieja and Viña Santa Isabel, obtained golden medals.
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